Hematopoiesis is highly regulated by complex interactions between numerous intracellular pathways that control the fundamental processes of self-renewal, quiescence, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Many viruses, including HCMV, KSHV, and HTLV-1 have evolved to manipulate hematopoiesis and specifically drive differentiation towards a virus-favorable outcome. Uniquely, however, each of these viruses manipulates different cellular pathways that drive HPC differentiation to specific lineages, i.e. HTLV-1 promotes T-cell differentiation, KSHV promotes endothelial cell differentiation, and HCMV promotes myeloid differentiation, all through multiple mechanisms.
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